Tuesday, March 24, 2020

What is IT Infrastructure and What Are Its Components Essay Sample free essay sample

IT substructure is the shared engineering resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information system specifications. IT substructure includes hardware. package. and services that are shared across the full house. Major IT substructure constituents include computing machine hardware platforms. runing system platforms. endeavor package platforms. networking and telecommunications platforms. database direction package. Internet platforms. and confer withing services and systems planimeters. 2. What are the phases and engineering drivers of IT substructure development? The five phases of IT substructure development are: ( 1 ) the mainframe epoch. ( 2 ) the personal computing machine epoch. ( 3 ) the client/server epoch. ( 4 ) the endeavor calculating epoch. and ( 5 ) the cloud and nomadic calculating epoch. Moore’s Law trades with the exponential addition in treating power and diminution in the cost of computing machine engineering. saying that every 18 months the power of microprocessors doubles and the monetary value of calculating falls in half. The Law of Mass Digital Storage trades with the exponential lessening in the cost of hive awaying informations. We will write a custom essay sample on What is IT Infrastructure and What Are Its Components? Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page saying that the figure of Ks of informations that can be stored on magnetic media for $ 1 approximately doubles every 15 months. Metcalfe’s Law helps demo that a network’s value to participants grows exponentially as the web takes on more members. Besides driving detonating computing machine usage is the rapid diminution in costs of communicating and turning understanding in the engineering industry to utilize computer science and communications criterions. 3. What are the current tendencies in computing machine hardware platforms? Increasingly. computer science is taking topographic point on a nomadic digital platform. Grid calculating involves linking geographically distant computing machines into a individual web to make a computational grid that combines the calculating power of all the computing machines in the web. Virtualization organizes calculating resources so that their usage is non restricted by physical constellation or geographic location. In cloud calculating. houses and persons obtain calculating power and package as services over a web. including the Internet. instead than buying and put ining the hardware and package on their ain computing machines. A multicore processor is a microprocessor to which two or more processing nucleuss have been attached for enhanced public presentation. Green calculating includes patterns and engineerings for bring forthing. utilizing. and disposing of information engineering hardware to minimise negative impact on the environment. In autonomic computer science. computing machine systems have capablenesss for automatically configuring and mending themselves. Power-saving processors dramatically cut down power ingestion in nomadic digital devices. 4. Define and depict unfastened beginning package and Linux and explicate their concern benefits. Open beginning is produced and maintained by a planetary community of coders and is frequently downloaded for free. Linux is a powerful. resilien t unfastened beginning runing system that can run on multiple hardware platforms and is used widely to run Web waiters. Define Java and Ajax and explicate why they are of import. Java is an operating –system – and hardware- independent scheduling linguistic communication that is the taking synergistic scheduling environment for the web. Ajax is another Web development technique for making synergistic Web applications that prevents all of this incommodiousness. Define and depict Web services and the function played by XML Ajax and JavaScript is another Web development technique for making synergistic Web applications that prevents all of this incommodiousness Name and depict the three external beginnings for package. Mashups. Java. LinuxDefine and describe package mashups and apps.Mashups combine two different package services to make new package applications and services. Apps are little pieces of package that run on the Internet. on a computing machine. or on a nomadic phone and are by and large delivered over the cyberspace. 5. Name and depict the direction challenges posed by IT substructure. Covering with platform and substructure alteration. substructure direction and administration are the challenges posed by IT substructure. Explain how utilizing a competitory forces theoretical account and ciphering the TCO of engineering assets help houses make good substructure investings. TCO theoretical account can be used to analyse these direct and indirect costs to assist houses find the existent cost of specific engineering executions.

Friday, March 6, 2020

How working with an editor helped me score a publishing deal

How working with an editor helped me score a publishing deal How Working with an Editor Helped me Score a Publishing Deal Leslie Heath recently secured a publishing contract for her novel "The Last Mayor's Son". She attributes a large part of her book's success to her editor. In this article, she shares glimpses into the editing process and her advice on how to maintain a good author-editor relationship.A good editor can take a mediocre story and help make it into something phenomenal, but that requires lots of communication, knowledge, and above all, a strong relationship between the author and editor.Important note: a good editor doesn’t actually change the story  - they make suggestions that the author can accept or refuse. It is ultimately the author’s responsibility to make any necessary revisions to the prose, storyline, or characters.Finding the right editorWhen working on my novel,  The Last Mayor's Son, I first tried finding an editor  on author forums and web searches - without much luck. I did begin to work with one individual, but that arrangement quickly fell apart for many reasons, some of which I should have seen coming. First, I figured out almost immediately that this "editor" was not a professional - despite the claims on his website. When I asked him about his cringeworthy grammar and punctuation, his response was that those things were not his concern. This might have been funny if it wasn’t so frustrating. Finally, I asked around for advice, and several people recommended Reedsy as the best place to find a genuinely professional editor.Reedsy's briefing process was simple, and  within no time, I had accepted an offer from one of their vetted editors, Maria D’Marco. Initially, I asked her for an editorial assessment to point out flaws in the plot and give me a general idea of where to improve. I expected a short two- or three-page overview, but I got so much more. Maria gave me an in-depth, twenty-page written assessment plus notes in the manuscript. She not only showed me the areas that needed work but also highlighted pl aces where the story shined.How to facilitate a good author-editor relationshipThis is a good place to point out the most important aspect of the author-editor relationship: the author must be willing to accept constructive criticism. It is astounding how many authors ask for input, then get offended and angry when the editor or reader finds an error or suggests a change. I didn’t agree with every suggestion, but I used them as jumping-off points where I could improve my story. Also, this is where the author needs to have a plan for the story. There were several places where Maria suggested something that wouldn’t work for my idea of the storyline. Instead of getting upset at her feedback, I saw it as an arrow pointing to a problem. Clearly, my idea didn't get across in that passage, so I rewrote it to say what I wanted it to. A good author-editor relationship requires  the  ability to accept constructive criticism. One instance of this is a scene where it necessary to the story for a character who is swimming in a lake to head for deeper waters. After reading this scene, Maria felt it was a bit random and that I needed to specify why this character dives deeper. She suggested the character notices something sinister in the shallow-end and therefore swims away. While this was intriguing, it didn’t fit the story. To fix the clarity problem, I added a few lines of dialogue at the end of the scene where the character explains that something brushed his leg, startling him into jumping toward deep water.The importance of editing for fantasy novelsFantasy stories can require more work than other types of fiction, especially when the author has to keep track of all the details about how the world works. The world I had created for "The Last Mayor’s Son"  has 3 moons which orbit in different directions and in different time schedules. This is an issue at one point in the story when two c haracters must  wait until the slowest moon is full again before they can be freed from their temporary prison. A sharp editor is essential in these situations, as they can see inconsistencies that the author may not have noticed.Several months after Maria’s initial assessment, I returned to Reedsy - and Maria - for a full developmental edit. I was eager to see what her reaction would be to the changes I had made. This time we got more into the nitty-gritty of each individual scene, and she also pointed out some bad grammatical habits I had fallen into. Specifically, she walked me through improving the flow and coherence of the final, epic battle scene, where the main character leaves his home to help defend a  forest village, he must face the enemy. While I had the major events of the battle already defined, Maria helped me organize them so the flow made sense and readers could easily follow what was happening. I would go more in-depth here, but I don’t want to give away the ending!Professional editing helped me score a publishing contractAfter more revisions and reworking those scenes, I started sending off queries to publishers and agents. Within a few short weeks, I received a request for a full manuscript, and then an offer for a contract with a small independent publisher. I have no doubt that Maria’s help was instrumental in landing the deal because she helped strengthen the weakest parts of the book. And after working with a talented professional, I can say with confidence that a good editor is instrumental in creating a book people will want to read. A good editor is instrumental is to creating a book people will want to read. Just remember - know the story you are trying to tell, but keep your pen open to suggestion and you will find working with an editor to be a fruitful and happy process.The Last Mayors son is available from Class Act Books, and on Amazon in paperback and  Kindle.  What have been your experiences working with an editor? Do you have any additional tips for creating a good author-editor relationship?  Leave your thoughts, experiences, or any questions for Leslie  in the comments below.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Introduction to human resource Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Introduction to human resource - Assignment Example 1. HR is responsible for recruiting and training employees. For this, they formulate and conduct different strategies of interviewing and testing the candidates. After that, HR recommends names for selection to the top management. 3. In order to facilitate the employees in their tasks and to enable them to achieve the assigned objectives, HR provide the employees with all resources they require with due approval of the top management. 4. HR helps the accountants prepare salary of individual workers. For this purpose, HR conducts attendance and maintains record of absentees so that the pay for unapproved absenteeism can be cut from the salary. Regarding their interaction with the HR professionals, the interviewees said that they listen to the HR professionals carefully and pay full heed to what they instruct because they visualize them as a link between them and the top management. My aunt said that HR professionals’ instructions have to be respected because they come from the top management. My brother said it is advisable to try to maintain excellent terms with the HR professionals because their evaluation makes a difference. My friend said he maintains a formal interaction with the HR professionals. I agree to the statement of each of them regarding this matter. My aunt and friend perceived HR professionals as representatives of the top management while my brother perceived HR professionals as spies. I agree more to the response of my aunt and friend than my brother in this matter. HRM plays a very important function in any organization. Workforce is the most valuable asset of any organization. Being its managers, HR professionals assume prime importance in the organization. The central role of HR professionals in the organization interests me. I would best be able to serve the strategic role of HR because this involves special display of emotional intelligence (EI) on the part of the HR professional. By

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Substance abuse among teens Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Substance abuse among teens - Article Example y get into substance abuse owing to peer pressure or just for the sake of pleasure, the long term consequences are extreme and thus, they must be educated on the issue which makes them direct stakeholders in the issue. Thus, both parents and their children as a family unit make an important stakeholder to the issue. For instance, if the child is indulged in the perils of substance abuse, it would be the family who will have to bear the brunt while the child is in rehab, also medical expenses would also be borne by the family. Thus, in any way, the family unit has the most stakes in the issue (Monty, Suzzane & Tracy 22-23). Similarly, the community of the teachers and instructors directly associated with these teenagers also has stakes in the issue since they will be ones looking after the well being of the community. Thus, as an institution these teachers, professors and instructors must also be directly engaged in a meaningful discussion since they understand the behavioral patterns of the issues well, which makes them stakeholders in the debate. On a macro level, the policy makers who are looking after the demand supply pattern of these drugs involved, and thus awareness over the issues is also significant for them. For instance, these policy makers have to be mindful of developing strategies over the age limit of legal availability of certain legalized drugs, similarly, of the level of taxation to be imposed on the purchase of such drugs. Thus, on a holistic level, advocates, community mobilzers, family units and other similar institutions stand to be significant stakeholders in this context. The study aims at addressing the gap in information specifically for the stakeholders identified. In other words, assessing substance abuse with a focus specifically on teenagers is the need of the time since the issue is now affecting stakeholders at a macro level. The paper will thus offer information for these stakeholders who are looking for figures and estimates in a

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Understanding Communication in Animals

Understanding Communication in Animals Ever since the beginning of animal and human existence, there has been a continuous flow of information between individuals and groups. The term communication comes from Latin word commÃ…Â «nicÄ re to share and defines the process of giving information or of making emotions or ideas known to someone (MacMillanDictionary n.d.). Human communication has a very elaborated structure. A language is a complex communication system and it occurs when the speaker and the listener possess a representational process that is common and that ensures similar coding and decoding of signal meaning (Rendall et al. 2009) Even if animals might not have the ability to speak a language or utter various words, they have many other ways of expressing themselves. In animal communication, scent is probably the most common sense used by animals in order to mark their territory, to warn off or even scare intruders, to show their readiness to mate or even to attract the prey. In general, they use strong smelling urine for these purposes but some animals possess scent glands that produce persistent odours. Skunks are widely known for their anal scent glands that spray an oily liquid towards their enemy. The foul mist does not do any serious damage to the victim but it scares him off and it could linger on his body for a few days. Snakes and lizards use their tongues in order to collect the scent particles in the air then they analyze the information inside their mouths. Many insects, such as bees, ants and moths use pheromones to communicate, mostly for attracting males. Another source of scent utilized by some animals (for example: the rabbit, the hippopotamus, the vicuna) to make their presence be felt on different territories is excrements. The y try to mark their territory by dropping large heaps of feces so others would keep distance. The second sense that animals rely on to a great extent is hearing. In order to survive and succeed, animals guide themselves by the acoustic signals that they produce and receive. There is an ample variety of sounds that could be produced by animals, depending on size and species. Numerous acoustic signals that are transmitted by animals are not distinguished or noticed by humans because of the ultra-low sounds that can’t be perceived by human ear. The most vocal animals are birds that are well-known for their songs in different tonalities and cheerful chirping, especially in spring and summer. Whales, the largest of all mammals, are experts in the art of sound communication. They use various types of sounds, like whistles, clicks and pulsed calls for multiple purposes: echolocation, mate calling, and social interaction (Anon n.d.). Other animals that are often heard by humans are frogs and toads that have developed their vocal signals by using little bags of air as sound res onators which are situated on the sides of the head or in the throat. Elephants can produce a wide range of sounds, from rumbles to snorts and cries, going from very low frequencies to higher ones. When they are in danger or they are in a state of extreme excitement they use their trunks to deliver long resounding trumpeting. Their large ears allow them to have a great sensitivity to lower frequencies and also a better capacity in localizing sounds. A third sense that helps animals communicate is sight. Visual signals at animals are diverse and they can come in many forms of display, such as mimicry, body posture, and facial expressions. For example, male peacocks and lyre birds display their exquisite colorful feathers and bodies in order to attract females for mating, visual communication being used in their advantage. Body language is frequently used by dogs, cats, monkeys and other animals. An example would be the moment when two dogs meet for the first time and they start setting their hierarchical position through body postures. If one holds its tail between the legs it means that the dog is found in a submissive position, allowing the other, with raised tail, to exercise power and dominance. Dogs also make use of their tails by wagging them in order to show happiness, excitement or pleasure. In opposition, cats waving tail is a signal of anger and irritation. The non-human primates, the monkeys, use a lot of facial expres sions and body language to express their feelings. They flutter eyelids and raise eyebrows to denote pleasure, they hug to show friendship towards the other, and the males hit their chests in order to show superiority. The art of mimicry is a fascinating modality of visual communication between animals. Mimicry occurs when an animal copies the actions, the appearance or the sounds of another animal or even the surrounding itself in order to avoid predators and enemies and to get them confused. For example, the peacock butterfly has large eye-spots on its wings to give the predator the false impression that it represents something bigger than it actually is so that would scare him off. Another example is the elephant hawk moth caterpillar who inflates its snake-like- head when being attacked to create the illusion of being a bigger and scarier animal. Other type of visual communication is warning coloration which can be found at caterpillars, various insects, frogs and snakes, the bright colors representing a warning for the potential predators. Their coloration pattern shows how dangerous or poisonous they can be and also if they have a dreadful taste. So, in general, animals learn how to avoid the danger in such cases. Even though it might not be as important as other senses, touch is used by some animals in order to communicate their feelings towards others. As humans make certain gestures like shaking hands, kissing or hugging when meeting someone, monkeys also hug as a sign of affection. In addition to humans, they have a special and unique greeting which consists in placing the hand in the each other’s mouth as a sign of trust and friendliness between them. Cats are creatures that are avid after tactile communication with others of their kind or even with humans. They usually rub their bodies against each other, especially around the face area but also along their bodies, intertwining their tails. Some domestic and savage cats use each other as â€Å"cushions†, this behavior being some form of social bonding and affection. They love grooming each other and curl up together. Owner of over 1000 tiny receptors, the crocodile is very sensitive to any kind of presence or movement. These receptors are present around their jaw line and they can easily detect vibrations in the water and the location of their prey even when a small insect stops by to take a drink. Animal communication has always been fascinating to humans as we try to understand which are the similarities and differences between human language and animals’ ways of expressing themselves. Karl von Frisch, a professor of zoology at the University of Munich, conducted some research on bee communication during around thirty years and he revealed some important principles that helped us understand more about animal communication(Benveniste 1953) First of all, we found out that there are some similarities between bee communication and human language. They are able to offer and to receive messages that contain real data, they can describe the location and the distance of a certain object and they can communicate all these by using various somatic movements. Therefore, it was demonstrated that bees own some kind of â€Å"memory† which enables them to store all the data and then transmit it to others. On the other hand, the differences between human language and bee communication are significant. Bees can only transmit the message through body language without being able to create sounds through vocal organs. Their communication can occur only during daylight, an element that permits visual perception while human communication is not limited by this factor. Another important difference between the two ‘languages’ is the fact that, unlike humans, bees can’t carry a dialogue therefore there is no exchange of linguistic information and no reply from the receiver of the message. Also, bees’ messages can’t be analyzed because they can only be seen as a general reference to a total content. But in human’s speech, each utterance can be reduced to parts that could easily be combined according to some certain rules so there is a great variety in human language. So, we got to the conclusion that bee’s communication is not a language but a signal code because there is an invariability of the message, a unilaterality of transmission, an impossibility of separating the elements of the message and also fixity of the topic. Studies made on non-human primates showed that while humans acquire extra information about a speaker’s intentions, wishes, and beliefs during a dialogue, apes and monkeys appear to have no such abilities because there is no theory of mind. Their way of communicating might appear a bit chaotic when it is compared to human language. For example, when they encounter dangerous situations, they create some alarm vocalizations which are not structured but short and noisy. These sounds are ideally produced to capture the listener’s attention as quick as possible in order to warn it about the potential dangers and to make it react really fast. To conclude, the lack of a real language in animal communication does not mean that there is no similarity between human language and animal communication. Humans will always make research about animal communication in order to get a better understanding of the way the non-human beings express themselves. Bibliography and References Anon, Whales make noise to communicate, locate food, and find each other. , p.http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/whalesounds.htm. Available at: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/whalesounds.htm [Accessed January 15, 2014]. Benveniste, E., 1953. Animal Communication and Human Language: The Language of the Bees. Diogenes, 1(1), pp.1–7. Available at: http://dio.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/039219215300100101 [Accessed January 11, 2014]. MacMillanDictionary, No Title. Available at: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/communication [Accessed January 14, 2014]. Rendall, D., Owren, M.J. Ryan, M.J., 2009. What do animal signals mean? Animal Behaviour, 78(2), pp.233–240. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003347209002589 [Accessed January 11, 2014]. 1

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Natural born cyborgs

Natural born cyborgs – of course one may ask or wonder what the term means. Well, the term was invented by Andy Clark, a professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at the University of Sussex, UK and chair in Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. So what does he mean by natural born cyborgs? The term denotes us, humans. For him humans are very much cyborgs as Robocop, Eve 8 among many others. Now, what made him think so? Clark made use of a term called cognitive hybridization, which in turn denotes the tendency of our brain to mix with the technology or to put simply, our dependency towards technology. According to Clark we don’t need wires for the term cyborgs to be applied to us. In his exact words he said â€Å"†¦we shall be cyborgs†¦in the more profound sense of being human-technology symbionts: thinking and reasoning systems whose minds and selves are spread across biological brain and non-biological circuitry.† At first glance one might say that Clark’s interest is primarily on technology but the truth of the matter is he is more interested in understanding humans, and the nature of human mind. Clark gave certain interest upon discussing the terms â€Å"transparent† and â€Å"opaque† technology. According to Clark, the technologies we are living with today are slowly becoming a part of us. From there on he went on to define what he meant by â€Å"transparent† and â€Å"opaque† technology. According to him transparent technology â€Å"are technology that is†¦integrated with, our own lives†¦as to become invisible in use.† Having defined what transparent technology is, let us now move on to understanding what Clark meant by opaque technology. By opaque technology he means â€Å"one that†¦requires skills and capacities that do not come naturally to the biological organism, and thus remains the focus of attention.† By this one may go on to conclude that opaque technology is one which is hard to use and thus requires skills if one aims to use it successfully. Let us take the wristwatch as an example of a transparent technology. If we look back to our ancestors we can say that their way of checking the time is kind of primitive. They made use of checking the position of the sun or listening for the chime of the bell, which indicates the time. However, as time moved on time slowly became a part of us. New technology had been invented and checking the time now is not as hard as it had been before. In this sense, it may not be dangerous to say that wristwatch may now be considered a part us, and thus a transparent technology. If one is familiar with Heidegger he/she might even see the similarity of Clark’s conception of transparent and opaque technology with that of Heidegger’s ready-to-hand and present-at-hand concept. To better understand what I mean I will give a brief description of what Heidegger have in mind with the terms stated above. By present-at-hand Heidegger meant an attitude the same to that of a scientist or a theorist. Like a scientist or a theorist one will be interested in something only because of the facts the object has to offer which they could later on use to theorize about something. We often view things which are present-at-hand in a secondary mode as in the case of a broken fan which lost its usefulness, such as a watch who happened to stop working. Thus, we can see a connection between Clark’s idea of opaque technology and Heidegger’s present-at-hand. On the other hand, ready-to-hand is something more like Clark’s transparent technology. We use things without theorizing about that things, hammer or wristwatch for example. In this regard, one can clearly see the similarity between Clark’s concept of transparent and opaque technology with that of Heidegger’s concept of present-at-hand and ready-to-hand. I remember making the claim in class that these are both essentially phenomenological treatments of technology. By this I mean to say that we seek to understand what technology is. If we can experience what is meant by technology, first hand, the better. The way the mind works is very complex. Humans never cease to be content. Technology came into being because of our inability to be content. As humans seek to understand more things, to make life easier, technology blooms faster. And now, we are living in a technological world and there are people among our race who’s still not content with the way things are and thus they seek to better understand things. Clark, on his work, Natural Cyborgs, tried to show how humans became so caught up with technology that human lives became intertwined with technology itself. I remember reading something about him wishing to understand how the mind works and if he is to do that then he must understand what technology is all about. Phenomenology as a method is very useful. By exploring a certain phenomena in order to understand a higher truth behind the phenomena is something great. Phenomenology might be useful in understanding technology and in this I have no doubt. However, by saying that phenomenology can help to better understand technology I am not saying that this can open all the gates of our understanding towards technology because I strongly believe that no method, not even phenomenology itself can open our minds to everything there is to know about technology or anything in particular. As we are humans there would always be room for ignorance. We cannot understand things fully no matter how hard we try because I believe that there would always be room for questions and for doubts. In this regard, I cannot offer another alternative should phenomenology fails to make us understand everything there is to know about technology. Dualism is the belief that the body is distinct from that of the soul. In this paper I would make use of Cartesian dualism. It is in the belief of Descartes that though the body and the soul are of different entities both can still interact with one another. It is from Descartes where the term interactionism originated. In his interactionism he said that the body is the one who receives sense perceptions wherein the soul is the one who is responsible for our awareness. According to Descartes the seat of interaction lies in the pineal gland. In his belief the soul houses the body and if the body is acted upon by the soul then their point of interaction happens in the pineal gland. I talked about Cartesian dualism because if one is to look closely Clark’s idea of technology becoming one with us or a part of us is almost the same to Descartes idea of dualism. Both seem to see the body merely as a house. The difference however, is that for Descartes the body is the house of the soul wherein for Clark the body is the house of technology or something to that effect.   Clark believes that the use of technology is essential in understanding how the mind operates because men nowadays are so caught up with technology that we are completely dependent towards technology. Technology became an important part of us and it seems to solve most of the problems of our world thus Clark concluded, for the same reason that technology may be useful in understanding human mind. However, I don’t think that it really solved the mind-body problem present in Cartesian dualism because somehow I can still see flaws on Clark’s idea. Technology for one, though reliable on most time, is still prone to failure. Somehow, failure may occur or accidents of some sorts because technology is not really that perfect, it’s got its flaws. I also don’t believe that Clark can avoid radical skepticism because no matter what he does there would always be people out there who would go on to criticize his beliefs. One can’t really please everyone and I’m pretty sure that there are still people, purists for one, who would certainly doubt the power technology has. Thus, on my conclusion I say that even though Clark opened our minds to some ideas and although most of what he said holds true, I don’t really believe that his idea is perfect enough to avoid skepticisms. Reference: Clark, Andy. Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Intelligence. Oxford University Press, USA; 2003

Friday, January 10, 2020

Human Resourse Management in Pakistan

HUMAN RESOURSE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN (Major Human recourses challenges in Pakistan public health system, Human Recourse system policies and ways to address those challenges) Introduction Human resources are the heart of the health system and health care managers have a critical role in determination of performance of the system [1]. Our savings and investment level can be raised only when we are in a position to convert our unproductive and underutilized human and natural resources into dynamic and self-sustained capital and potential accelerator of economic growth.The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined the health workforce as â€Å"all people primarily engaged in actions with the primary intent of enhancing health†. This definition is consistent with the WHO definition of health systems as comprising all activities with the primary goal of improving health. The health workforce is one of the most important pillars of the health system. Adequate numbers and quality o f health workers have been positively associated with successful implementation of health interventions, including immunization coverage, outreach of primary care, and infant, child and maternal survival. 2] Human Resource Management is a key to improve productivity of people in the organization. Good Human resource management approach with strategic, ethical and social responsibility which further help to achieve organization goal and objectives. Human Resource management is an art to transform changes as employee commitment and opportunity through developing their knowledge & skills and motivating them. In developing country human resource players are considered necessary since they can serve as intellect of an organization.A loyal, dedicated, skilled, efficient and productive human resources is valuable assets of an organization but not reflected on the balance sheet. [3] Pakistan story In 1947, Pakistan was created as British rule came to an end in India. In 1971, East Pakistan demanded independence, and after a bloody civil war it was transformed into what is now the country of Bangladesh. As one of the most crowded countries in the world, Pakistan faces enormous economic and social crises.Fortunately, however, it possesses an abundance of natural resources that can help it overcome these challenges [4] Pakistan is blessed with huge natural and human resources but most of these are in crude form. â€Å"According to official data, there are 127,859 doctors and 12,804 health facilities in the country to cater for over 170 million people. † [5] â€Å"Infant mortality rate: 72/1,000 live birth, Maternal mortality rate: 260/100,000 live birth instead having 7. 8 Physicians/10,000 population, 3. Nurses and midwifes/10,000 population; overall 11. 6 Health care workforce /10,000 population in the country† [6] In Pakistan the health system remains functionally weak and the quality of health services is poor, despite very old constitutional support fo r health care as a right and a large Ministry of Health at federal and provincial levels [7, 8]. In Pakistan health sector performance has not been evaluated in terms of inputs, processes or activities and outputs for different types of resources including human resources.Very little is known about compositions of health managers, their skills, and training, and spec ifically the policy for deployment. The first and foremost prerequisite for human resources progress is the proper attention to the health sector. No nation can dream of acquiring preeminence in any field with sick and disabled persons so developed nations invest quite a hefty amount in their health sector. In Pakistan, unfortunately, due attention is not paid to this important sector.Human resources for health have recently been emphasized as a central component in providing a stronger health system to achieve the Millennium Development Goals [9]. Absence or nonimplementation of appropriate human resource policies that address appropriate numbers of staff, their qualifications, deployment, working conditions, and gender distribution are associated with many problems in the health work force [10]. Frequency of turnover of key managerial staff has also been associated with poor system performance [11]. Human Resource Development and Management challengesPakistan has been categorized as one of 57 countries that are facing an HRH crisis, below the threshold level defined by WHO to deliver the essential health interventions required to reach Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 [12]. Health workforce strategy is usually low on a country’s agenda, despite the understanding that scaling-up health interventions to reach MDGs is not possible without a minimum level of health workforce. National health workforce strategies require reliable and timely information, rational system analysis and a firm knowledge base.However, data analysis, research on HRH and technical expertise are still underd eveloped in many countries, in part due to low investment in HRH [13]. Pakistan’s new draft National health policy 2009 mandated the development of strategies in various key areas, including HRH [14] There is a lack of clear long-term vision for human resource development and the federal MOH or provincial DOH does not have a unit, responsible for such an important health system function. [15] The imbalances in health workforce in terms of cadre, gender and distribution are well known in Pakistan.The public sector continues to heavily invest its scarce resources in the development of medical colleges and universities rather than investing in improving quality and quantity of nursing institutions, public health schools and technicians training institutions. In the context of health system development, there is a serious shortage of qualified health system specialists such as health and human res ource planners, health economists, health information experts and health system and hospital managers.Pre -service training of health professionals follows traditional methods and there is a mismatch between educational objectives, which focus on hospital based care, instead of addressing the needs of the communities for promotive, preventive curative and rehabilitative services. The Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PM&DC) is responsible for registration, licensing and evaluation of the medical and dental practitioners, the attempts made by PM&DC have not materialized yet.Regulation of private practitioners and different traditional categories of medical practice such as homeopathic doctors and Yunani Hakims is non-existent. Human Resource in health care is not appropriately planned in Pakistan, with the result that there are more doctors than nurses, dearth of trained midwives, urban concentration, brain drain from rural to urban areas and abroad, along with other issues related to curriculum, quality of graduates and their continuing supervision.The service structure for health workers is poorly defined it, favors tenure over competence, largely ignores technical capacities and does not allow incentives or rewards for performance. The conduct of education for medical, nursing and related cadres is mostly conventional and does not utilize recent developments in the field of medical education. Though curricula have been revised from time to time, in majority of cases they are not locally contextualized and are not based on competencies and skills.There is no organized system for continuing medical education for any health providers who are also largely unsupervised and at times ill equipped with newer knowledge/skills to tackle emerging diseases. This holds true for management cadres as well. The health system is currently not conducive to nurses, midwives and allied health professionals playing pivotal roles in ensuring the provision and delivery of effective primary health care services in th e absence of doctors.Health authorities hav e yet to be convinced that PHC services can be successfully provided and delivered by nurses, midwives and allied health professionals making up local teams with the relevant staffing complement and skills mix. [14] All publicly employed doctors are forbidden from practicing privately and many of them receive non practicing allowances as part of their non salary allowances under the law of the country, That notwithstanding, most of them run lucrative private sector clinics while working in hospitals and often use the public sector leverage to boost practices in private facility settings.A number of unethical practices such as refusing to see patients i n hospitals and referring them to private clinics are well established and are almost regarded as a conventional norm. Provider-driven over-consumption of health services, over-prescription, and over-use of diagnostics as well as violation of ethical guide lines in clinical practice are well established in Pakistan. In terms of the et hics of health care alone, frequent violations of the four basic principles of: the Right to autonomy, Right to privacy, Right to choose and Right to information are often seen. 17] High rate of frequent transfer and posting is also a major reason of low levels of performance in public health sector. A study was conducted on the 54 top provincial offices in the government of Sindh Department of Health over the period of 24 years (1981-2004). There were 689 transfers/postings made in the 54 key offices studied over the 24 year time period. Almost half (48. 9%) of these postings lasted no longer than 1 year. The offices affected highest were tertiary/district care hospitals (54 tim es) and district health offices (37 times) respectively. 18] Recommendation and priority actions towards Human resource development Since the Pakistan is enriched with human resources there is emerge need to develop strategy for optimum utilization of it especially in public heath sector. WHO reviewed the h ealth system of Pakistan and suggested that there is need to develop a clear policy and strategies for human resource development according to the longer term stated health development vision for Paki stan and to the more pressing requirements of improving health service delivery in the country .The report emphasize on mapping of health care providers and institutions through a national human resources for health (HRH) observatory, which should bring together all stake holders involved in human resource development. It suggested that to deal with standard setting and regulatory functions strategic planning in human resource development at federal and provincial levels is required. It reflected the essentiality to established position such as human resource planners, health economists, health information experts and health system managers, which are attractive enough to recruit qualified and experienced persons.In addition, tackle their shortage in the short term through external fel lowships and in the longer term through the development of accredited training programs in the country. A nursing directorate should be established in the MOH in order to strengthen leadership and to address the nursing crisis. There is need to review the role of the PM&DC, CPSP and other institutions in term of new developments and planned reforms. By providing problem based training the system can reorient the production of health workforce towards more focus on public health and community needs.In order to provide the necessary support to the various reforms aimed at increasing access to health services and at improving health system performance; strengthening of partner institutions such as Health Services Academy (HSA), schools of public health, academia and professional institutions is required. Human resource policy in government bureaucracies should be developed to stabilize professional positions while having a clear transfer policy in place and improve the performanc e of the health care delivery system. 15] Efficient and effective development of a health care system needs of equitable gender distribution of women in the health workforce. [19] To meet out such needs ministry of health, Pakistan came up with national health policy in July 2009 which recommended that Federal and health authorities will play a vital role for the development of the health resource in Pakistan. This federal and Provincial Health authorities will forecast human resource needs based on requirements outlined in essential health services package and provincial strategies.It will direct and facilitate the teaching institutions in reorienting their curricula and training t o being competency-based with enhanced exposure to the community and with responsiveness to the local needs and compliance with international standards. It includes that each district will be linked to a teaching institution so that the latter can provide technical support and supervision to the former to imp rove rural health care services.All medical graduates will be recommended to be posted to rural centers for a period of at least 6 months after graduation. The Pakistan Medical and Dental Council will ensure that those undergoing post graduate training also rotate through district health centers. Provincial health authorities will appoint and retain relevant cadres of appropriate health personnel with special focus on staffing district primary care outlets and on recruiting women.Provincial health departments will track human resources for health by establishing a database of doctors, nurses, midwives and allied health professionals working in the BHUs and RHCs across each province and those in training funded by the government. [14] Conclusion A healthy population is not only valued in its own right, but it also raises the human capital of a country thereby positively contributing to the economic and social development.A considerable improvement in health sector facilities over the past year is reflected in the existing vast network of health care facilities which consist of 4712 dispensaries, 5,336 basic health units, 924 hospitals, 906 maternal and child health centers and 288 TB centers. Available HR is 122798 doctors, 7388 dentist and 57646 nurses. [20] A major strength of health care services in Pakistan is very strong outreach via about 95,000 Lady Health Workers (LHWs) and an increasing number of community midwives (CMWs).Inspite of all there is a lack of clear long-term vision for human resource development, which is necessary to address the imbalances in health workforce with appropriate skills; and improved motivation, retention and productivity; Human resources in health care are not appropriately planned in Pakistan, with the result that there are more doctors than nurses and â€Å"brain drain†, along with other issues related to curriculum, quality of graduates and their continuing supervision.The service structure for health workers is po orly defined it, favors tenure over competence, largely ignores technical capacities and does not allow incentives or rewards for performance. The conduct of education for medical, nursing and related cadres is mostly conventional and does not utilize recent d evelopments in the field of medical education. There is no organized system for continuing medical education for any health providers who are also largely unsupervised and at times ill equipped with the skills to tackle emerging diseases.National Health Policy 2010 is include a vision for the role HRH strategy can play in helping to meet the country’s goals for improving health care services for all Pakistanis. In addition, the current HRH assessment will serve as evidence for a new HRH strategy to be dev eloped and implemented by the Ministry of Health. The national and provincial authorities will comprehensibly plan and forecast their human resource requirement for next 10 years according to the proposed services in t he respective areas and take robust short term and long term steps to achieve the balance in manpower. 6] Provincial health authorities will also develop, implement and maintain a database of health human resource, including the private sector. Nationwide campaigns will be launched to promote the permanent roles that nurse, midwives and allied health professionals may play in providing and delivering effective services to the public. By: – Mr. Vikas Jain References 1. Martinez J, Martineau T. Rethinking human resources: an agenda for the millennium. Healt h Policy and Planning 1998 2. The world health report 2006: working together for health .Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006. 3. Dr. Zareen Abbasi Assistant Professor Department of Public Administration University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Human Resource Management in Pakistan , The Elite Scientific Publications, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 2009 4. World Atlas . com [http://graphicmaps. com/webimage/countrys/asia/pk. htm] 5. http:// southasia. oneworld. net/todaysheadlines/healthcare-in-pakistan-too-expensive-to-afford 6. CCF Case study, establishing an HRH coordination process, Pakistan, page 1, 2 7. Siddiqi S, Haq IU, Ghaffar a, Akhtar T, Mahaini R.Pakistan's maternal and child health policy: analysis, lessons and the way forward. Health policy 2004; page 117-130. 8. Bhutta ZA, Ali N, Hyder A, Wajid A. â€Å"Perinatal & Newborn Care in Pakistan: Seeing the Unseen! † Maternal and Child health in Pakistan. Challenges And Opportunities: Edited by Zulfiqar A Bhutta. Ameena Saiyid, Oxford University Press 2004. 9. Narasimhan V, Brown H, Pablos-Mendez A, Adams O, Dussault G, Elzinga G, et al. Responding to the global human resources crises. The Lancet 2004; page 14 -72. 10. Martineau T, Martinez J.Human resources in the health sector: guidelines for appraisal and strategic development Brussels: European Commission, Directorate General for Development, â€Å"Health and Development Series† 1997. 11. Buc han J. What difference does (â€Å"good†) HRM make? Human Resources for Health 2004 12. Global atlas of the health workforce. Geneva, World Health Organization (http://www. who. int/globalatlas, accessed 12 December 2009). 13. Narasimhan V et al. Responding to the global human resources crisis. Lancet, 2004 14. National health policy 2009. Islamabad, Ministry of Health (final draft) (http://www. health. gov. pk, accessed 5 May 2010). 5. Report of the Health System Review Mission – Pakistan, World Health Organization United Nations Children Fund, Department for International Development, United Kingdom, The World Bank, February 19-28, 2007, Islamabad 16. Corruption in the health sector in Pakistan , Pakistan Health Policy forum 17. Abdul Hakeem Jokhio B. S. , Ph. D. Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, H ealth System Managerial Staffing Patterns: Public Sector Experience From P akistan, 18. World Health Organization. World Health Report 2003-Sha ping the future. Geneva; 2003. 19. Pakistan Economic Survey, 2007